Microorganisms, ideal temperatures and moisture levels, oxygen levels and nutrient ratios are all key in producing humus from a compostable product. Without the ideal environment i.e. poor moisture levels or inadequate oxygen levels, compostable products will emit methane.
Microorganisms: Microorganisms are usually found in soil. Arguably the most important feature of composting, microorganisms eat the compostable material and produce humus.
Ideal temperatures: Ideal temperatures are required to provide healthy and optimal environments for microbial activity (microorganisms eating the compostable material).
Ideal moisture levels: Similar to ideal temperatures, moisture levels provide healthy and optimal environments for microbial activity.
Oxygen levels: Microorganisms produce humus through aerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen.
Nutrient ratios: Carbon and nitrogen levels are important in composting as microorganisms react to varying nutrient ratios in their habitat.